WIMS Current Activities Report

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WIMS2 Center Facilities

The University of Michigan Robert H. Lurie Nanofabrication Facility

The Lurie Nanofabrication Facility (LNF) in the College of Engineering began operation in September 1986, and today offers complete capabilities for the fabrication and characterization of solid-state materials, devices, and circuits using silicon, compound semiconductors, and organic materials. The LNF supports research on integrated photonics and optoelectronics, organic and molecular electronics, optical displays, microwave devices and circuits, semiconductor materials and metrology, nanotechnology and nanofabrication, integrated circuits, solid-state sensors and actuators, microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and integrated microsystems. Research in compound semiconductors focuses on the growth and characterization of wide- and narrow-bandgap semiconductors, new high-speed and microwave device structures, optoelectronics, and millimeter-wave heterostructure devices. Work in integrated photonics and optoelectronics includes III-V semiconductor growth by molecular beam epitaxy, self-organized quantum dots, photonic crystal devices for quantum computing, single-photon light sources, and integrated bio-photonics. Research in organic and inorganic thin-film devices focuses on thin-film transistors, integrated circuits and light-emitting devices on glass and plastic substrates, hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors for flat- panel displays and sensors, and active-matrix organic light-emitting displays.

Research on integrated circuits includes low-power, high-precision sensor interface circuits, ultra-low-power embedded computing, wireless telemetry, and high-speed, analog-to-digital converters. A major focus of the LNF is research on microsystems, merging low-power electronics with high-frequency MEMS resonators, inertial devices (accelerometers, gyros), integrated physical and chemical sensors, microfluidic cell sorting and diagnostic systems, implantable biomedical sensors, neural interfaces, environmental monitoring systems, energy scavenging systems, and advanced wafer-level hermetic packaging. Thus, the LNF supports a very broad array of technologies and processes for programs that address a wide number of important national priorities.

The LNF is supported by a Laboratory Manager, three area supervisors, and 18 engineers. Additional staff provide direct support for various research programs. Graduate students perform most of the processing in the LNF as part of their doctoral thesis projects.

The original LNF consisted of 7,000 square feet of Class 100/10 work area located in five process bays and in rooms dedicated to lithography, metrology, and materials growth. The LNF was recently expanded by adding 5,000 square feet of new cleanroom backed up by 38,000 square feet of new state-of-the-art infrastructure space. This expansion was supported entirely by gifts to the University and is now being equipped to support microsystems research and nanotechnology. The new equipment includes 20 diffusion/oxidation/CVD furnaces, two STS Pegasus DRIE systems, two AM P5000 cluster tools for CVD and dry etching, facilities for carbon nanotube growth, a state-of-the-art electron-beam lithography system, and an imaging SEM capable of sub-10nm resolution.

The following table summarizes the fabrication, packaging, and testing capabilities in the LNF. A more detailed list of equipment is available at www.engin.umich.edu/LNF.

Summary of Major Equipment and Capabilities in the LNF
*New equipment added in 2009 shown in italics

Technology Equipment Comments/Capabilities
Lithography Suss MA-6 & MA-45, MJB3
2 Electronic Vision 620
Raith 150 E-Beam System
E-beam Lithography System
Suss ACS 200
GCA I-Line Stepper
Contact, Min. Feature≈1.5µm
Double-Side Alignment/Lithography
Direct-Write E-Beam, <100nm
State of the Art Lithography, <10nm
Bond Alignment
Automated Photoresist Coat/Develop
17 Thermco Furnaces
4" Wafers, Auto-Load
Rapid Thermal Processing
10 6" Tempress Furnaces
P and B Diffusion
Field and Gate Oxidation
Contact Annealing
LPCVD 3 Thermco 4" Furnaces
10 Tempress 6" Furnaces
LPCVD Nitride/Oxide, LTO, Poly
LTO, Poly, Doped Poly, TEOS, …
1 AM P5000 Cluster Tool
Low-Stress SiN, Doped Poly, LTO
CVD, 4 Chambers
PVD Thin-Film
4 E-Beam Evaporators
2 Sputtering Systems
Sputtered Films System
SCS PDS 2035 System
Evaporate Metals, Sputter Metals,
Dielectrics, Compounds
AlN Deposition System
Parylene Depostion
Dry Etching 9 Dry Etch Systems
Plasma, RIE, DRIE, ECR
1 XeF2 etcher
1 Trion Oracle RIE
2 STS Pegasus DRIE
1 AM P5000 Cluster Tool
Hitachi 308 Etcher
Standard RIE for Various Materials
1 Deep Si RIE Etching (STS)
1 ECR Nanoetching
Photoresist Ashers, Wax Etching
Deep Silicon Reactive Ion Etching
Dry Etching, 4 Chambers
Metal Etching
Wet Processing 6 Wet Benches Standard Wafer Clean and a Variety
of Wet Chemical Processing
Wet Si Etching
Hoods and Benches
1 Zygo, 1 Flexus, 2 Spectrometers,
2 Elipsometers, 3 Profilometers
Nikon Microscopes

1 Veeco Nanoman AFM
Hitachi HR Imaging SEM
Wafer Surface Topography
Wafer Stress Measurement
Film Thickness Measurement
Film Metrology

Nano-scale Imaging
Mask Making Optical PG Feature Sizes Down to 1.5µm
Wafer Bonding EVG 501s Bonder
Suss SB-6e Bonder
EVG 510 and 520IS
Suss np12 nanoPrep
Suss CL200 Cleaner
Silicon-Glass Bonding in Vacuum
Si-Si: Fusion, Eutectic, Polymer
Wafer Bonders
Materials Growth 3 MBEs, 1 MOCVD, 1 VPE

FirstNano 3000
Growth of All Compound
Semiconductor Materials
CNT Growth System
Other Process
Bake Oven, Critical Point Dryers,
Rinser/Dryers, Polyimide Processing,
Organic Processing
Disco 150mm Dicing Saw
Wire Bonding
Electrical Tests
Several Wedge and Ball
Bonders, Solder Reflow
8 Probe Stations
Standard Wire Bonding
Solder Reflow, Vacuum Packaging
Laser Cutting
Humidity and Temperature Chambers,
Long-Term Testing and

In 2009, the LNF was used by 219 researchers (157 internal and 62 external) for a total of over 33,000 hours. These users represented 11 departments within the University of Michigan, 13 other universities, and 23 companies. There were also 26 remote users handled through the MEMS Exchange Program. During the past decade, 18 startup companies have been launched by LNF faculty and students, building a high-tech critical mass that could dramatically improve the local, state, and national economies.

The LNF is one of 13 nodes that comprise the NSF-funded National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN). The NNIN is responsible for providing open access to the facilities of its member universities in support of all aspects of micro- and nano-device fabrication, characterization, computation, and analysis. Like the WIMS ERC, the NNIN supports a number of outreach and educational programs and acts as a platform for addressing social-ethical issues involved in nanotechnology. The LNF provides expertise in general micro- and nano-fabrication, MEMS, BioMEMS, integrated microsystems, packaging, circuit fabrication, and sensor-circuit integration to this network. More detailed information about the capabilities of the NNIN can be found on its Web site (www.nnin.org) or on (www.engin.umich.edu/LNF).

Updated 01/09/2012